# Describe in one sentence how the pattern in this graph (2da) differs from the original

The World Health Organization recently put out a report on antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Antimicro Show more The World Health Organization recently put out a report on antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Antimicrobial resistance is the general term for resistance to any form of anti-microbial agent (e.g. antibiotics other drugs used to combat microbes). Below are some questions related to some of the graphs from this report. (If you are interested in seeing the full report go to: http://www.who.int/patientsafety/implementation/amr/publication/en/ ) 1) To the right is a graph of the incidence of penicillin resistance versus total antibiotic use in a number of different countries. (The blue lines are a trend line and confidence intervals for the trend). 1a) If you got infected with a strain of Streptococcus in the USA fell ill from the infection and then traveled to the Netherlands for treatment 1a1) what is the probability that the strain of your infection would be penecillin-resistant? ________ % 1a2) what is the probability that your infection would respond to penicillin (i.e. that penicillin would be useful in killing of the infection)? ________ % 1b) If you got infected with a strain of Streptococcus in Denmark fell ill from the infection and then traveled to the Portugal for treatment 1b1) what is the probability that the strain of your infection would be penecillin-resistant? ________ % 1b2) what is the probability that your infection would respond to penicillin (i.e. that penicillin would be useful in killing of the infection)? ________ % 1c) The relationship shown in the graph suggests that the proportion of resistant bacteria in a country is correlated with antibiotic use in that country. But correlation does not necessarily imply causation. How could you test whether this relationship is due to a causal relationship between the two variables namely how could you test that an increase or decrease in antibiotic use causes an increase or decrease in the proportion of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus? In 1-3 sentences describe a controlled (not a comparative) experiment that could test this. 1d) If rates of gene flow of Streptococcus strains between countries increase dramatically such as by an increase in human travel between countries how will this affect the pattern in this graph? 2da) To the right redraw the graph to illustrate the pattern you would expect between % resistance and antibiotic use across countries in a situation where gene flow between countries is extremely high. 2db) Describe in one sentence how the pattern in this graph (2da) differs from the original [this is all just one question] Show less

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