Critic of the Art


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N i n t h E d i t i o n

F. David Martin Professor of Philosophy Emeritus

Bucknell University

Lee A. Jacobus Professor of English Emeritus

University of Connecticut

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Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2011, 2008, and 2004. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.

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ISBN 978-0-07-352398-9 MHID 0-07-352398-4

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Martin, F. David, 1920– author. The humanities through the arts / F. David Martin, Bucknell University; Lee A. Jacobus, University of Connecticut–Storrs.—Ninth Edition. pages cm Includes index. ISBN 978–0–07–352398–9 — ISBN 0–07–352398–4 (hard : alk. paper) 1. Arts–Psychological aspects. 2. Art appreciation. I. Jacobus, Lee A., author. II. Title. NX165.M37 2014 700.1’04–dc23 2013041627

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F. David Martin (PhD, University of Chicago) taught at the University of Chicago and then at Bucknell University until his retirement in 1983. He was a Fulbright Research Scholar in Florence and Rome from 1957 through 1959, and he has received seven other major research grants during his career as well as the Christian Lindback Award for Distinguished Teaching. In addition to more than 100 articles in professional journals, Dr. Martin is the author of Art and the Religious Experience (Associated University Presses, 1972); Sculpture and the Enlivened Space (The University Press of Kentucky, 1981); and Facing Death: Theme and Variations (Associated University Presses, 2006).

Lee A. Jacobus (PhD, Claremont Graduate University) taught at Western Connecticut University and then at the University of Connecticut (Storrs) until he retired in 2001. He held a Danforth Teachers Grant while earning his doctorate. His publications include Hawaiian Tales (Tell Me Press, 2014); Substance, Style and Strategy (Oxford University Press, 1999); Shakespeare and the Dialectic of Certainty (St. Martin’s Press, 1992); Sudden Apprehension: Aspects of Knowledge in Paradise Lost (Mouton, 1976); John Cleveland: A Critical Study (G. K. Hall, 1975); and Aesthetics and the Arts (McGraw-Hill, 1968). Dr. Jacobus writes poetry, drama, and fi ction. He is the editor of The Bedford Introduction to Drama (Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2013). His A World of Ideas (Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2013) is in its ninth edition.

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We dedicate this study to teachers and students of the humanities.

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1 The Humanities: An Introduction 1 2 What Is a Work of Art? 18

3 Being a Critic of the Arts 47


4 Painting 63 5 Sculpture 95

6 Architecture 126 7 Literature 171 8 Theater 199 9 Music 225

10 Dance 256 11 Photography 278

12 Cinema 304 13 Television and Video Art 333


14 Is It Art or Something Like It? 352 15 The Interrelationships of the Arts 379

16 The Interrelationships of the Humanities 400 GLOSSARY G-1



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1 Th e Humanities: An Introduction 1

The Humanities: A Study of Values 1 Taste 4 Responses to Art 4 Structure and Artistic Form 9

EXPERIENCING: The Mona Lisa 10

Perception 12

Abstract Ideas and Concrete Images 13 Summary 16

2 What Is a Work of Art? 18 Identifying Art Conceptually 19 Identifying Art Perceptually 19 Artistic Form 20 Participation 24 Participation and Artistic Form 26 Content 27 Subject Matter 29 Subject Matter and Artistic Form 30 Participation, Artistic Form, and Content 30 Artistic Form: Examples 32 Subject Matter and Content 38

EXPERIENCING: Interpretations of the Female Nude 44

Further Thoughts on Artistic Form 44 Summary 45

3 Being a Critic of the Arts 47 You Are Already an Art Critic 47 Participation and Criticism 48 Three Kinds of Criticism 48 Descriptive Criticism 49 Interpretive Criticism 53 Evaluative Criticism 56

EXPERIENCING: The Polish Rider 60 Summary 61


4 Painting 63 Our Visual Powers 63 The Media of Painting 64 Tempera 64 Fresco 66 Oil 67 Watercolor 69 Acrylic 69 Other Media and Mixed Media 70

Elements of Painting 72 Line 73 Color 76

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6 Architecture 126 Centered Space 126 Space and Architecture 127 Chartres 128 Living Space 131 Four Necessities of Architecture 132 Technical Requirements of Architecture 132 Functional Requirements of Architecture 133 Spatial Requirements of Architecture 137 Revelatory Requirements of Architecture 137

Earth-Rooted Architecture 139 Site 140 Gravity 140 Raw Materials 142 Centrality 143

Sky-Oriented Architecture 145 Axis Mundi 148 Defi ance of Gravity 149 Integration of Light 150

Earth-Resting Architecture 151 Earth-Dominating Architecture 153 Combinations of Types 154 Guggenheim Museum Bilbao and Sydney Opera House 155 High-Rises and Skyscrapers 157

EXPERIENCING: Sydney Opera House 158

FOCUS ON: Fantasy Architecture 163

Urban Planning 166 Summary 170

7 Literature 171 Spoken Language and Literature 171 Literary Structures 174 The Narrative and the Narrator 174 The Episodic Narrative 176 The Organic Narrative 179 The Quest Narrative 182 The Lyric 184

EXPERIENCING: “Musée des Beaux Arts” 187

Literary Details 188 Image 189

Texture 77 Composition 77

The Clarity of Painting 80 The “All-at-Onceness” of Painting 81 Abstract Painting 81 Intensity and Restfulness in

Abstract Painting 83 Representational Painting 84 Comparison of Five Impressionist Paintings 84

FOCUS ON: The Self-Portrait: Rembrandt van Rijn, Gustave Courbet, Vincent van Gogh, and Frida Kahlo 90

Frames 92 Some Painting Styles of the Past 150 Years 92

EXPERIENCING: Frames 93 Summary 94

5 Sculpture 95 Sensory Interconnections 96 Sculpture and Painting Compared 96 Sculpture and Space 98 Sunken-Relief Sculpture 98 Low-Relief Sculpture 99 High-Relief Sculpture 100 Sculpture in the Round 101 Sculpture and Architecture Compared 103 Sensory Space 104 Sculpture and the Human Body 105 Sculpture in the Round and the

Human Body 106 EXPERIENCING: Sculpture and Physical Size 108

Contemporary Sculpture 109 Truth to Materials 109 Protest against Technology 112 Accommodation with Technology 115 Machine Sculpture 116 Earth Sculpture 117

FOCUS ON: African Sculpture 119

Sculpture in Public Places 122 Summary 125

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Tonal Center 235 Musical Structures 237 Theme and Variations 237 Rondo 238 Fugue 238 Sonata Form 238 Fantasia 239 Symphony 240

FOCUS ON: Beethoven’s Symphony in E ♭ Major, No. 3, Eroica 245

Blues and Jazz: Popular American Music 250 Blues and Rock and Roll 252 Summary 254

10 Dance 256 Subject Matter of Dance 256

EXPERIENCING: Feeling and Dance 258

Form 259 Dance and Ritual 259 Ritual Dance 261 Social Dance 261 The Court Dance 262

Ballet 262 Swan Lake 264

Modern Dance 267 Alvin Ailey’s Revelations 269 Martha Graham 271 Pilobolus and Momix Dance Companies 272 Mark Morris Dance Group 273

FOCUS ON: Theater Dance 275

Popular Dance 276 Summary 277

11 Photography 278 Photography and Painting 278

EXPERIENCING: Photography and Art 282

Photography and Painting: The Pictorialists 283

Straight Photography 286 Stieglitz: Pioneer of Straight Photography 287

Metaphor 191 Symbol 194 Irony 195 Diction 196 Summary 198

8 Th eater 199 Aristotle and the Elements of Drama 200 Dialogue and Soliloquy 201

Archetypal Patterns 203 Genres of Drama:…